How you can and how you can not get infected

How can you get infected with HIV?

Remember when you had flu, and people didn't want to approach you close so that they would not get it as well. Similarly to the flu, csuder of the AIDS is a virus - HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) but you can not get it in the same way as flu.

HIV is situated in a blood but also in other body fluids such as semen and vaginal secretions. It can not survive long outside the human body and, therefore, to get infected, it must be brought a certain amount of one of these body fluids in your bloodstream.

The most common ways of HIV infection are:
• unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner
• Drug injection into a vein using a needle and / or syringes previously used by an infected person

HIV can be transmitted in both these situations, because the virus is present in sexual fluids (semen and vaginal secretions)and in the blood of infected person. It is present in all other fluids in the body but only its concentration in these three fluids is sufficient to cause an infection!

You can get HIV:

Vaginal sex
HIV is found in the sexual fluids of an infected person. For men this means that HIV is contained in the fluids that come out of the penis before and during sexual intercourse. For a woman it means that HIV is in the fluids produced by the vagina before and during sexual intercourse to make it easier and more enjoyable.

If the man who has HIV is practiced vaginal intercourse without a condom, infected fluid could pass into the bloodstream of a woman through the least injury in her body (most commonly in the vagina), it can by injury of microscopic proportions, therefore invisible to the naked eye. These micro-injuries are common in a sexual intercourse due to friction and especially if the intercourse lasts longer.
If a woman infected with HIV has sexual intercourse without a condom, the virus can enter the bloodstream of a man through (micro) injury or the tube (urethra) that goes through the penis and makes the common exit route for urine and semen - and it may be enter point for infection.

If there is any contact with blood during sex it increases the risk for infection. For example, there may be blood in the vagina if intercourse occurs during menstruation.

Oral sex
Oral sex with an infected partner carries a certain amount of risk. If a person sucks penis of an infected man, for example, infected fluid could get into the mouth and the virus could get into the bloodstream if there are bleeding gums or other wounds anywhere in the mouth or throat.

The same goes if infected vaginal fluid from infected women ends into the mouth of her partner.

The transmission of HIV infection through oral sex is rare but there are things you can do to protect youselfe. The use of condoms (for men) and dental rubber (for women) will protect you from infection.

Anal sex
the risk of infection during anal intercourse is higher than during vaginal or oral sex. The lining of the anus (anus) is much thinner and more sensitive than the mucous membrane of the vagina so there is the higher probability of injury during the intercourse and any contact with blood during sex increases the risk of infection.

For anal sex, there are special condoms.

Injection drug
There is very high risk of getting HIV if you use the same syringe and needle with someone who already has HIV. Disinfecting equipment between using an equipment reduces the risk but does not eliminate it. Using a personal stationery is the only sure protection.

Blood transfusion
There are recorded cases of HIV infection through blood transfusion. Today, in most countries, blood transfusion must be tested for HIV and some other dangerous elements, and the HIV infection through blood transfusion is extremely rare and practically non-existent.

Via blood products
Blood products as the ones intended for patients with hemophilia are treated with heat to eliminate the risk of transmission of the infection in this way.

Transmission from HIV positive mother to child
An infected pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her baby during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding. If a woman knows that she is infected with HIV, there are medications that can significantly reduce the chances of infecting her child.

More about vertical transmission (from mother to a child) find here.

Infection in health care
Some health care workers were infected with HIV by accidental needle-sticks with the HIV infected blood in the needle. Very few workers were infected by the infected blood through open wounds on skin or in the stream through the mucous membranes (eg eyes or the inside of the nose)
There are only a few cases where patients got a virus from a health worker.

Tattoo / piercing
All that allows the body fluids of another person to get into your body is the risk. If tattoo equipment is not sterile, it carries a certain amount of risk. If you are thinking about the tattoo, ask the staff at the salon where you will get tateooed about the procedures taken for the prevention of infection.

How you can not get HIV?

Kissing
At the moment, scientific opinion is pretty clear - you can not get AIDS by kissing.
To become infected you would have to get a sufficient quantity of HIV in your bloodstream. Saliva has the virus but in very small quantities that is unable to cause HIV infection to another person.

Unless both partners have large open sores in their mouths, or severely bleeding gums, there is no risk of transmission of infection by kissing.

Sneezing, coughing, sharing glasses, cups, etc.
HIV can not reproduce outside its living host, except under very extreme laboratory conditions. HIV does not survive in the open air, which makes the possibility of the environmental transmission through the air very unlikely. In practice there were no cases of these ways of transmission.

This means that HIV can not be transmitted through spitting, sneezing, sharing glasses or musical instruments, cutlery, bed linen, towels, clothes ...

Also you can not become infected in the pool (chlorine that is present is killing the virus), in the shower or by sharing washing machines or toilet seats.

By insects
Numerous studies have shown no evidence of the fact that insects transmit the virus even in areas with many cases of AIDS and a lot of insects like mosquitoes. Lack of such outbreaks, despite considerable efforts to detect them, supports the conclusion that HIV is not transmitted by insects.
Also, HIV lives in an insect for a short time and does not reproduce. So, even if the virus enters the insect it does not become infected, which means it will not be able to transmit HIV to the next person.

Injecting with sterile needles
Injecting drugs with sterile equipment will not transmit HIV as long as such equipment is used every time. This applies to the entire kit - a needle, syringe, spoon, filter, and even water.

However, there are other risks for HIV transmission, which are related to drug use: if you are under the influence of drugs (even alcohol) it could have an impact on your decision-making and state of mind so you can engage in unprotected sexual intercourse or other risky behavior.

Protected (safe) sex
If you properly use proper latex condom, the risk of infection does not exist. The myths that 'very small viruses can rest pass through latex' are simply not true.
Anal sex is not necessarily a risk ratio if you properly use an appropriate condom and if there is no blood-to-blood contact.

You can not 'create' HIV just simply practicing anal sex.

Can you get infected by kissing a person with HIV?

Someone to kiss on the cheek, which belongs to the everyday social contacts, poses no risk of transmitting HIV.

A deep kiss on the mouth (also known as a wet kiss and French kiss) is considered very low risk activity for HIV transmission. This is because HIV is present in saliva, but in very low concentrations, insufficient to cause HIV infection.

The only possiblity of infection through this way is if infected blood gets into the mouth of a person that already has a wound in its mouth(on the gums, tongue and throat, etc..). If you or your partner have blood in your mouth, you should avoid kissing on the mouth until the bleeding stops.